National and international openness principles and guidelines

National guidelines


Open science: open access publishing and open data, Academy of Finland

International guidelines and agreements

The European Union’s open science web page

The European Commission’s guidelines and policies to promote open science:


The European Commission’s H2020 online guides:


LERU Statements contains the leading European scientific universities’ statements that promote open publishing and data.

Berlin Declaration was compiled in a conference organised by the Max Planck Society in October 2003. An international group of representatives from universities, research institutes and scientific publishers attended the conference. The Finnish Council of University Rectors has also signed the declaration. According to the Berlin Declaration, scientific knowledge spreads only partially, unless information is used and shared openly. Knowledge and cultural heritage produced by humankind needs to be distributed globally and freely online.

Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is an international initiative that aims to promote open publishing of scientific publications and communication in different fields of science. BOAI focuses only on peer-reviewed data. The main principle is that the publications have to be openly accessible online. Open access publishing increases visibility, readership and impact of scientists and their work.

SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Research Coalition) is a worldwide group of research institutes, scientific libraries and associations that promotes open accessibility of research knowledge and encourages alternative scientific publishing. SPARC Europe is its European branch. The University of Eastern Finland’s Library is involved in SPARC.