Bibliometric indicators

You can find the indicators described below from, for example, the following databases:

Number of published articles

Usually articles are tallied up by author, sometimes also by subject, institute or organisation. The easiest way to perform an analysis is to do it by author or by organisation, because these publication numbers can be acquired straight from bibliometric databases. In addition, your own organisation's publication index and the JUULI publication information portal are useful.

Number of citations

Usually tallied up in the way that the author's citations to his or her own articles (auto citations) are removed. You can find the citation numbers in, for example, the Scopus (Author Search -> Activate the icon before the author's name -> View Citation Overview) and Web of Science (Author Search -> Search by author's name -> Create Citation Report) databases.


Physicist Jorge Hirsch developed the h-index for evaluating productivity of theoretical physicists in 2005. Using the index has gradually spread to other fields of science. The h-index is determined by arranging a list of person's publications in a descending order of the number citations and finding the ordinal number of a publications that has been cited at least as many times as how large the ordinal number is. For example, if a person's h-index is 5, it means that they have five publications that have been cited at least five times each. The h-index combines the number of publications to the number of citations. The goal is to consider both the researcher's complete career development and significance of their publications. The faster a researcher can raise their h-index, the more "impressive" they are. Vice versa, if a younger and a more mature scientist have the same h-index, the younger one is more "successful" or "impressive" than the more mature researcher. You can find a researcher's h-index in, for instance, the Web of Science database (Author Search -> Search by author's name -> Create Citation Report).

Impact factor

Known also as impact number, impact measure and citation factor. This is an indicator for a scientific journal, and it proportions the number of citations for an article to the number of published articles. It is tallied up for the whole journal, never for separate articles or authors. An impact factor, for example, for the year 2016 is calculated by tallying up the citations to articles published in the journal in the two previous years (2015+2014), and this sum is divided by the number of articles published in the journal within the same period of time. If a journal's impact factor is 3.7, it means that for each article published in the journal in question has been cited an average of 3.7 times during the two years prior to the impact factor year.

IF is an average value of references with a crooked distribution, for only a part of a journal's articles are cited at all, or a very small part of them are cited widely. Journals with also a small IF value publish articles that are cited a lot, and journals with high IF may publish articles that do not get cited at all.

The Web of Science-based InCites Journal Citation Reports (JCR) contains, among others, journals' reference information and impact values. It is published once a year, usually in June.

Here is how to find an Impact Factor number

Immediacy index

An indicator that shows how many times an article has been cited on average during its publishing year. The higher the immediacy index, the more rapidly the article has received citations. A journal's Immediacy Index value can be found in, for example, the Journal Citation Reports database (Select Journals -> Click on a journal title -> Key Indicators).

Eigenfactor score

Illustrates how networked journals and citations are. The total number of citations to articles for the last five years are accounted for, as well as the most cited separate journal issues. Click here for more information, select "Eigenfactor Metrics" on the service's main page.

SCImago journal rank (SJR)

A Google PageRank algorithm-based impact factor for a scientific journal. This indicator is tallied up slightly in the same way as the impact factor. However, the journal's subject area and "authority" initially determine the citations' importance. The number of citations counted from only one year, and this is proportioned to the number of articles published in the journal during the three previous years. The emphasis on citations aims to normalise the SJR values. The goal is to prevent "unearned increment" of certain fields of research, since it occurs easily when only Impact factor values are used. For more information, see here, choose Journal Rankings -> Search by a journal's title -> SJR value can be found in the diagram.

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP)

An indicator based on the number of citations received by a journal, with a goal to improve the comparability of different fields of science. Citations received by a single, separate journal are proportioned to the total number of citations received by the journal in question in the same manner as regarding the SJR indicator. You can find a journal's SNIP value in, for instance, the Scopus database (Sources -> Search for a journal -> Click on the title of a journal -> Source Details, for more information: Visit Scopus Journal Metrics).

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